Any company always works in two directions. Firstly, it is explicitly engaged in business and profit-making, and secondly, it carries out non-core scientific and technical activities. The second aspect of the focus of any enterprise can be called Research and Development or simply R&D.
The term mentioned above stands for Research and Development works. They represent a set of experiments, theoretical ideas, searches, production of standard samples, a set of measures aimed at producing the finished product according to specified standards. Thus, software research and development is the cornerstone for any commercially viable organization producing software.
The scale of R&D reflects the competitive performance of companies, and the cost of such services is an indicator of the manufacturer’s innovative activity. Hence, it is possible to calculate the competitiveness of a product at the development stage. According to research institutes, global spending on R&D is growing globally, accounting for a market of more than a trillion US dollars. The first places in terms of research and development, are mainly occupied by countries with an advanced economy, such as the USA, Japan, Great Britain, some European countries, etc. Their market shares and ranking positions are always changing. For example, recently, emerging economies such as China and India have become very active.
Scientific research is often used in the manufacture of state-ordered products. In this case, the activities are funded by the government, which implies strict compliance with the established plan consisting of several stages. The fulfillment of R&D works is associated with specialists’ involvement in a particular field and the presence of an exact time frame.
Types of R&D Effectiveness
In general, the researchers indicate the next most common activities and types of R&D efficiency:
- Intellectual activity, experimenting, theoretical research.
- Works aimed at the development of construction and technical documentation of the product sample.
- Other research activities designed to acquire new knowledge and skills in a particular area.
- Engineering processes.
The difference between Research and Development works and other types of industrial activities is the widespread use of cutting-edge technologies and know-how. Novelty is a distinctive feature of any R&D project. The output is a product with no analogs – it may vary from a new type of technology to exclusive products or services.
Research and Development Functions
The innovation process in the present-day world is based on scientific developments that usually have a business effect. Thus, investment in technology and research projects entail creating new products, technological processes, and up-level service industry. In the R&D sphere, it represents a factor in generating new specific advantages and a major element of innovation.
It turns out that the primary function of Research and Development is the practical application of the obtained phenomena and processes, which is especially typical for exploratory development. The purpose of research works is to provide production with new goods or services for profit.
R&D is the pre-production life cycle of a product, a set of ideas, and scientific developments to realize the final manufactures on the market.
At the Research and Development stages, other functions of research projects can be distinguished. Thus, in the beginning, the process is aimed at creating a rival product. For this purpose, marketing campaigns are conducted, and the goods nomenclature is evaluated, which is based on new process engineering solutions. After that, the scale of product distribution is established, followed by a complex of R&D works being carried out (experimental items resulting in a technological project).
Primary Tasks of Research and Development
The precise definition of the tasks of conducting and implementing scientific elaborations can significantly improve the efficiency of the process and, at the same time, avoid potential mistakes even at the first stage of product development. It is possible to distinguish the following R&D goals:
- Expanding the informational background in the state-of-the-art technologies, science, and engineering and gaining new knowledge and skills in studying society and nature for their further application.
- Determination of the new product’s marketability (its prototype) and its production prospects based on theoretical research and experimental activities.
- Innovative process and practical implementation of the acquired knowledge and skills.
Analysts note that Research and Development ensures an opportunity to enhance resource exploitation effectiveness, provide the competitive edge of private and state-owned enterprises, and improve living standards.
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